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Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi

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  (1773, Geneva, Switzerland - 1842, Geneva, Switzerland)
  His works include: "Critique of agriculture in Tuscany" (1801), "About commercial wealth or the principles of political economy in the application of trade law" (1803), "History of Italian Republics" (1807), "New fundamentals of political economy or wealth of population "(1819)," Studies on Political Economy "(1837).
Sismondi was the first intelligent and deep critic of the economic system of capitalism in the history of economic science, against many ideas of classical political economy. In the center of Sismondi's theory there are problems of market economy, economic crises, and the class structure of society. In his view, the large industry is a catastrophe for humanity; the two-class "net" capitalist society is in danger of cruel crises; it sees its salvation in "third parties" - intermediate classes (peasants, traders, artisans).
  His paternal family seem to have borne the name Simonde, at least from the time when they migrated from Dauphiné to Switzerland at the revocation of the edict of Nantes. It was not till after Sismondi had become an author that, observing the identity of his family arms with those of the once flourishing Pisan house of the Sismondi and finding that some members of that house had migrated to France, he assumed the connection without further proof and called himself Sismondi.
The Simondes, however, were themselves citizens of Geneva of the upper class, and possessed both rank and property, though the father was also a village pastor. His uncle by marriage was the prominent pastor Jacob Vernes, a friend of Voltaire and Rousseau.
The future historian was well educated, but his family wished him to devote himself to commerce rather than literature, and he became a banker's clerk in Lyon. Then the Revolution broke out, and as it affected Geneva, the Simonde family took refuge in England where they stayed for eighteen months. Disliking—it is said—the climate, they returned to Geneva, but found the state of affairs still unfavourable; there is even a legend that the head of the family was reduced to sell milk himself in the town. The greater part of the family property was sold, and with the proceeds they emigrated to Italy, bought a small farm in Pescia near Lucca and Pistoia, and set to work to cultivate it themselves (